Heritage Materials in Fire

torontoAt York University, our fire research team studies heritage materials and their response to fire. Our focus has been to consider timber and masonry. Doing these studies we are in the midst of preparing revised international guidance for these important structures. More recently the events in Paris have emphasized why this is such a serious topic of research to consider. For the last two years we have focused our efforts to really understanding timber performance, and we have done this by procuring real materials (columns, beams etc) from structures undergoing renovation (adaptive re-use) or sadly demolition. The importance of this study is now even more profound given this weeks events.

On April 15th team lead Dr. Gales joined CTV News for the evening to discuss and advise on the fire behaviour that developed within the attic structure of Notre Dame, and what was to be expected in the aftermath of the fire.

Beyond the material its also important to understand the architecture of the structure. We know ventilation has a role in how a fire develops, but in large spaces (akin) to what you would find in a heritage structure (much like Notre Dame’s) attic space there are very few quantifiers that allow us to develop numerical definitions to just how severe or quickly a fire may develop.

This summer the first papers of our important research project will appear publically. Two conference papers at ASFE and Interflam present both the first and second stage results of our study of timbers. In these important works we compare 100 and 200 service life timber to modern engineered lumbers and quantify the expected behaviors of several unique samples taken from several real buildings and condition to real environmental service. In these papers we will defensibly show how the lumbers behave both from a charring perspective and indeed to a flame spread potential.


Our next study involves the fire testing of a 100 year old farm structure. In this paper (see video below) we begin to characterize how the fire develops within an environment that is open well ventilated and of characteristic architecture. In this we can clearly see the speed of the fires development and the numerous interactions that are on-going that define the fire. This paper will also appear this summer for public release.

And then of course we are currently looking at Masonry response to fire, in the same manners that we considered lumber, we are looking at 100 and 200 year old samples, procured from real heritage buildings, which include a robust under study of mortar response. Our summer project releases will finialize with a Springer Briefs in fire book  co-authored by York Univeristy’s fire research team in collaboration with European experts on the subjects of heritage concretes, steels, masonry and of course timbers.

At York University we do not do this alone. These projects are all collaborations of students, institutions, stake holders etc. Our network extends locally to collaborations with the University of Waterloo (for many of the projects listed above) and broadly to our collaborators in Europe as noted above.

In the coming months and even years we will learn more about what exactly happened at Notre Dame. While our research is not solely to address one structure, the results being produced at York University will allow us to better understand what happened, and to appropriately defend similar structures of heritage value, if not any aged structure, from the loss from fire.

Stadium Pedestrian Flow Research: Emergency Fire Evacuations

Our team’s human behaviour in Stadia project in collaboration with ARUP (a multi-year NSERC Collaborative Research Development Initiative), will be presented at Interflam in London UK this July 2nd. This student led paper. by Danielle Aucoin and Tim Young. represents an ongoing research project performed over the last two years. To date we have studied ingress and egress behaviour in four stadiums. We have focused on Tennis, Baseball, Soccer and Football, and our preliminary results that we can share are just appearing now.

Our research team has collectively recorded over 15 ingress and egress events at various stadiums

At Interflam, one of the leading conferences in fire in 2019, we will present a paper called “Modeling Human Behavior in Emergency Stadium Fire Evacuations” In this paper we aim to characterize human behaviour seen in a real fire induced emergency evacuation of a Stadium. We then model this data using crowd simulation software MassMotion by Oasys software.

These results of this study are being utilized to further develop strategies and behavioural models in our future work and collaborations. This paper is one of the four of our ARUP collaboration papers for this conference. We will blog about these in the coming days.

You can register for the conference at https://lnkd.in/gKtJDPK . Find out more at a presentation on July 2nd!

Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Conference – Toronto 2019

The more conferences I go to that are themed around women in science and engineering, the more hopeful I become that engineers are ready to tackle problems of diversity and inclusion head on. The Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) annual conference took place this year on January 26th and 27th in Toronto. It is a society- and community-led conference, as opposed to a research-intensive conference, and it is organized as an outreach initiative. WISE 2019 has been my favourite conference on diversity and inclusion in engineering so far, precisely because of its focus on outreach and problem-solving.

                WISE 2019 represents a kind of community gathering that is often missing in engineering spaces. It’s a setting where students, academics, and industry partners come together to talk about careers and resilience. For someone like me, interested in the retention of women in engineering, this setting is an excellent example of what schools and employers should be doing for students and employees. Research into issues of diversity and inclusion is important, but arguably, solving the problems research finds is even more important. The WISE 2019 conference provided several workshops, ranging from technical to personal development. The explicit attention given to work-life balance in the keynotes, presentations, and workshops showed a commitment to engineers’ and scientists’ lives as opposed to just their work. I could see how empowering it was for attendees to have their identities as both engineers and people validated. It made having difficult discussions much easier because there was a mutual trust between everyone in attendance. Validation begets respect, respect begets trust, and trust begets confidence. Confidence brings out the good ideas that might otherwise be missed.

2018 IAWF 15th International Wildland Fire Safety Summit and 5th Human Dimensions Conference

This past month I had the pleasure of representing the Lassonde Institute of Fire Engineering at the 15th International Wildland Fire Safety Summit and 5th Human Dimensions Conference in Asheville, North Carolina. Organized by the International Association of Wildland Fire (IAWF), the conference was a glowing success despite the unexpected snowstorm that threw a wrench in many attendees’ travel plans. The fact that only one presentation had to be cancelled as a result of these challenges highlighted to me just how determined and passionate the presenters and event organizers were to share the important research being conducted in the field of wildfire safety and human factors in the wildland urban interface (WUI).

The five-day conference ran from December 10th – 14th and consisted of a wide range of workshops, presentations, poster sessions, and networking opportunities. The conference went outside the box to offer various types of presentations, ranging from plenaries and panels that allowed for dialog and diverse perspectives, to deep-dives that encouraged in-depth learning and participation, to themed sessions of 20-minute presentations exploring new and innovative research being conducted. The conference also provided a unique opportunity for academics and practitioners to learn from each other, discuss partnerships and challenge assumptions. As a young academic entering the field, it was invigorating to be immersed in such a supportive environment.

Athena SWAN and Other UK-Canada Collaborations on the Topic of Diversity and Inclusivity

The month of October has been incredibly productive for our women in engineering project (led by yours truly, Natalie). Early in the month, I had the pleasure of attending the Athena SWAN conference hosted by York University, and just a couple of weeks ago I had the opportunity to travel to England to link up with professionals in the engineering discipline that are working toward positive change.

Athena SWAN is a recent initiative spearheaded by the UK to increase representation of women and minorities in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) fields. It is a program designed to reward institutions who consistently work toward promoting diversity and inclusivity, and its success lies in its rewards not being permanent. Institutions that carry Athena SWAN medals must continue to support inclusivity and diversity, else lose their medals for lack of improvement.20181009_061248This focus on accountability and endurance of effective programs and practices over time is precisely what our research in Canada is targeting. The Athena SWAN conference held at York University sought to understand how to bring the Athena SWAN framework to Canada, as many of our resources and problems are similar but there are marked differences that must be acknowledged. Key themes that emerged from this conference were the need to acknowledge the differences between recruitment, development, and retention in our research and discussions about diversity; the need for initiatives and collaborations to run at a national level; and the need for institutions to be transparent to the public about both their successes and failures. I hope to embed these themes in our continuing work on the retention of women in engineering across Canada, and to involve more and more institutions in our research program. It is clear that incentives to participate in the drive to include underrepresented folks in STEM are being developed more and more, and that means that we will hopefully start seeing the people who need to be participating start participating, to avoid preaching to the choir.

2018 Fire and Evacuation Modeling Technical Conference – Maryland

Earlier this month, I had the pleasure of attending and presenting at the 2018 Fire and Evacuation Modeling Technical Conference (FEMTC). It was hosted by Thunderhead Engineering and held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, right around the corner from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This three day event spanning from October 1st to 3rd was a single-track agenda which allowed participants to watch all presentations and engage with all speakers. Attendees ranged from engineers to geo-scientists to researchers and a few students. The presentations were a fantastic balance between technical material and more high-level fire and modeling topics. I presented on the first day on stadium egress modeling our team has been conducting over the past year in collaboration with ARUP. The open access version of the paper can be found here and the presentation video at the bottom of this blog post. Our research was well-received and represents stage one of the project, in which stage two will be built upon over the next eight months. One of my favourite aspects of the conference included the fact that many of the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software developers were in attendance. Since many of the presentations were geared towards certain aspects of FDS, a lot of the Q&A periods not only consisted of audience questions, but also of comments from these FDS developers of precise recommendations and precautions to take when utilizing FDS for specific purposes.

The Experiences of Women in Undergraduate Engineering

The following is a guest post by research assistant and team member, Natalie Mazur. This June, Natalie is presenting The Experiences of Women in Undergraduate Engineering at the 9th Canadian Engineering Education Association’s Annual Conference., Vancouver, Canada. The paper can be downloaded here . 

A long-standing issue in the field of engineering has been the representation of women. Of the students that pursue undergraduate studies, half are women. However, to this day, women make up only 21% of engineering undergraduate students in Canada. This number has not significantly changed in almost 20 years. Additionally, women make up only 17% of newly licensed engineers nationally. As we look higher and higher up the corporate ladder, fewer and fewer women are visible.


Workshop on Advancements in Evaluating the Fire Resistance of Structures

Presenatations will be invited for full paper consideration in the journal, Fire and Materials

Dr. Gales will be chairing the Workshop on Advancements in Evaluating the Fire Resistance of Structures to be held Thursday December 6th and Friday December 7th, 2018. This workshop is sponsored by ASTM Committee E05 on Fire Standards and will be held at the Washington Hilton in Washington, DC, in conjunction with the December standards development meetings of the committee. The workshop will celebrate the centennial of the furnace temperature-time curve, which defines the thermal fire exposure conditions in ASTM E119 and other fire resistance test standards.

SFPE 12th International Conference on Performance Based Codes and Fire Design – Hawaii

Members of our team attended the SFPE fire conference in Hawaii last week. Team member Hailey Quiquero gave a fantastic presentation on modelling timber structures in fire from a FEM point of view. Her work is a collaboration with the University of Canterbury. Dr. Gales gave a presentation regarding steel connections based on team alumni Matt Smith’s work as he could not make the conference.

2018 -19 NSERC and OGS Scholarship winners announced! And other news…

As we are about to begin the summer term at York University, we have a number of news items and scholarship announcements to share.