The more conferences I go to that are themed around women in science and engineering, the more hopeful I become that engineers are ready to tackle problems of diversity and inclusion head on. The Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) annual conference took place this year on January 26th and 27th in Toronto. It is a society- and community-led conference, as opposed to a research-intensive conference, and it is organized as an outreach initiative. WISE 2019 has been my favourite conference on diversity and inclusion in engineering so far, precisely because of its focus on outreach and problem-solving.
WISE 2019 represents a kind of community gathering that is often missing in engineering spaces. It’s a setting where students, academics, and industry partners come together to talk about careers and resilience. For someone like me, interested in the retention of women in engineering, this setting is an excellent example of what schools and employers should be doing for students and employees. Research into issues of diversity and inclusion is important, but arguably, solving the problems research finds is even more important. The WISE 2019 conference provided several workshops, ranging from technical to personal development. The explicit attention given to work-life balance in the keynotes, presentations, and workshops showed a commitment to engineers’ and scientists’ lives as opposed to just their work. I could see how empowering it was for attendees to have their identities as both engineers and people validated. It made having difficult discussions much easier because there was a mutual trust between everyone in attendance. Validation begets respect, respect begets trust, and trust begets confidence. Confidence brings out the good ideas that might otherwise be missed.
This past month I had the pleasure of representing the Lassonde Institute of Fire Engineering at the 15th International Wildland Fire Safety Summit and 5th Human Dimensions Conference in Asheville, North Carolina. Organized by the International Association of Wildland Fire (IAWF), the conference was a glowing success despite the unexpected snowstorm that threw a wrench in many attendees’ travel plans. The fact that only one presentation had to be cancelled as a result of these challenges highlighted to me just how determined and passionate the presenters and event organizers were to share the important research being conducted in the field of wildfire safety and human factors in the wildland urban interface (WUI).
The five-day conference ran from December 10th – 14th and consisted of a wide range of workshops, presentations, poster sessions, and networking opportunities. The conference went outside the box to offer various types of presentations, ranging from plenaries and panels that allowed for dialog and diverse perspectives, to deep-dives that encouraged in-depth learning and participation, to themed sessions of 20-minute presentations exploring new and innovative research being conducted. The conference also provided a unique opportunity for academics and practitioners to learn from each other, discuss partnerships and challenge assumptions. As a young academic entering the field, it was invigorating to be immersed in such a supportive environment.
A lot will be said in the coming months, if not years regarding the fire seen at Grenfell. The few things Id say, is that cladding fires are not the only challenge we face in the community of fire engineering. Tunnels, Developing countries, Wild fires, New building materials, Risk based methodologies, etc., and I can go on, are all areas for the last decade we as a community have been stating require additional attention – many are receiving attention.
Fire strategies and design must account for and incorporate this human behavior. Human behavior is complex and multi-faceted and requires a reduction in uncertainties. If the designed building can show a validated and verifiable fire strategy that takes into account a level of predictable human behavior, the possibilities for improved performance based fire design in structures and infrastructure is possible. Human behavior and the interactions between humans and their built environment is a critical concept that may be beneficial to incorporate into standard engineering curriculum. It would be a valuable asset for emerging engineers to have a more complete and considerate perspective when conceptualizing the building designs of the future.-
except from our paper “The Study of Human Behavior in Fire Safety Engineering using Experiential Learning” presented at the Canadian Engineering Education Conference last June.
For the last two years at Carleton, I have been growing a research and education programme which touches on the above engineering need under the direct guidance and collaboration of renowned experts in this field. To date I now have four students studying this topic ranging from aging populations, to considerations of heritage, and mass occupancy. We are developing unique software tools, and improving education of the topic in Canada.
There is no question when you travel through Toronto you look to the sky and imagine the possibilities for iconic structures and you do see first hand the structural revolution occurring there. And more so, if your aware, you ask what this means for Canadian fire engineering design. Buildings are becoming very complex.
In Toronto alone, there are now over 25 buildings that are 50 stories or higher. Nearly 15 are under construction and nearly 30 are approved and/or proposed. Even in Ottawa there are about five or so proposed.
So how do you convey and prepare university students what innovative and complex designs may be like? How might you inspire them beyond designing a ‘box’? There is the cheap route – take them down to Toronto and show them first hand the newly designed buildings there; or maybe the more elaborate route and show them designs abroad (not necessary tall per say, but significant nevertheless). In Canada we have begun to push the envelope in fire engineering design, but in the United Kingdom for example, there has been a lot of attention given to fire engineering – specifically to complex buildings.
Recently two research students and myself traveled to London UK (a third went to Cambridge, UK the week after for the Human Behaviour in Fire symposium – Ill talk on that later). This was in an effort to illustrate to how iconic and fire engineered structures are designed abroad and allow a bit of comparative thought to what we do in Canada. The students presented their current research to some of the world’s largest engineering firms and had the opportunity to speak one on one with designers (many whom inspired my own career) about the challenges being faced abroad; particularly in respect to structural fire engineering.
Beyond this ‘city’ class room, the students attended the Steel in Fire Forum, where one of them presented her research to a captive audience (you can see her presentation slides here). The Steel in Fire forum is merging with the Concrete in fire forum, and this was the ‘last’ session. I find it fitting that a student gave the last presentation as I believe fire safety engineering’s biggest challenges are in education, particularly in Canada (but that is discussion for another day). Above all it was fantastic that so many people took so much time to accommodate the students and myself to teach about what structural design is like in the United Kingdom, one of the world’s best examples for iconic structure construction. The trip will certainly provoke the students into thought on what they see today and possibly will see tommorrow in design.
There is no more perfect North American example to learn about fire science history and earthquakes than at the city of San Francisco. Even a centennial after the 1906 quake and fire, the effects still resonate within the city in both its new infrastructure and the character of its constructions.
I had a wonderful opportunity to visit San Francisco this week for the Fire and Materials conference. There I presented results of optical strain measurements of fibre reinforced polymers at high temperature. That paper possesses a long winded title but a very interesting and curious high temperature behavior to discuss. The conference like its predecessors was well run, and as always, the experts attracted (students, scientists practitioners, educators, consultants, code writers, fire-fighters etc.) were jewels to chat and debate with about today’s relevant fire themes and advances. Even several Edinburgh crew of my alumni were there for our usual Tom Foolery and science chats (be sure to check their blog entries of the recent Czech building fire tests).
However the city’s character does call to the engineer to explore. This is today’s blog focus – which despite the location and atmosphere actually isn’t a fire blog per say but more of a civil engineering one.
Prior to the conference I wanted to see the Golden Gate Bridge – I’ve never had time when I was there last . Naturally the easiest way to see the bridge is to bus it, or even bike it. Neither appealed to me as I like a good walk. I started my journey at Pier 39 (I had wanted to see the extent of its sprinkler systems there on the board). I decided to walk along the shore line afterwards. A feature of that walk is the gorgeous splendor of the dunes which precede the bridge.
Before urbanization of San Francisco the whole area was this natural vegetative wet land. A tiny sliver of that is preserved today. It attracts hundreds to the area though. When you get up to the bridge you have an option of just cutting to the top and crossing. However there is a very interesting path to follow (meant actually for bikes). You can go under the bridge (towards the west) which provides you a lesson in structure vibration just hearing the roar of the traffic above. Walking further you encounter a curious plateau with two objects: a buckled steel column, and a seismic isolator (pad). With these are descriptors (pictured below).
For the architect and engineer the marvelous thing is that it explains how the new beam and truss members were designed for seismic conditions, while still preserving the heritage appearance of the original member. If you are clever you can spot the new and old members on the bridge after reading the descriptor. Viewing the illustrative seismic pad, then allows you to see how the bridge has been retrofitted. The goal of the pad is to allow a degree of movement in the event of an earthquake. Of course the standard high tension ropes (which everyone knows I love to study) can be seen everywhere. The whole expedition from walking there, looking around and getting back to Pier 39 took about 4 hours.
Incredibly fun, but probably not for the same reasons as visiting the bridge. In San Francisco you can also see the Coit Tower (descriptor above), which some allege resembles a San Francisco Fire hydrant shooting to the sky. Though quick inspection does show it to be depression era. The views and paintings being fantastic to take in. And of course the downtown core growing ever so quickly with urbanization – so if you want to see examples of tall structures in seismic zones they are there. The city is a treat to the engineer and architect. Though I do have an raised eyebrow about the ‘next one’.
One of the great things of testing materials with image correlation technologies at ambient and high temperatures is developing educational movies about engineering. Last summer Tom Parker and myself compiled thousands of images from my digital image correlation experiments into these videos. I’ve posted one example above which is to help teach the principles behind necking of steel for students. Ill post back later with an expanded blog entry with more videos but for now enjoy!
The Denver Fire tests of 1890 were revolutionary to the practice of fire safety engineering. The tests were performed under direction of architectural firm, Andrews, Jaques and Rantoul. The objective was to compare three allegedly ‘fire-proof’ flooring arch systems which had been proposed for the Denver Equitable Building through a competitive bid process. For the building contract, the Pioneer fire proof construction company had the lowest bid. The Wight Fire proof company bid slightly more. These companies proposed similar structural systems of floor arches of dense fire-clay. Thomas Lee, who bid the highest for the building contract, proposed an arched system of porous terra-cotta structural system (see the below floor configurations). Lee realized he out bid
his competitors, but also feeling his product much more superior in fire he asked the architects to consider comparative testing of all three proposed flooring systems. The architects and building owner agreed on the provision that all three companies were willing to participate. The three companies agreed to the terms and the architectural firm drafted a testing schedule of: A still load test- increasing until failure of the arch system; shock (impact) loading repeating until failure; Fire and water test alternating until failure; and continuous heating of “high heat” until failure. After testing, the architects came to the conclusion, that although Thomas Lee out bid his competitors his flooring system had out performed those of his competitors in this test series.
Today, we consider these tests revolutionary in the advancement of our fire science field by motivating progress towards organized fire testing of building materials. The building that inspired these tests, the Denver Equitable Building was built shortly after that test series and still stands today. The building even survived a major fire in the 1930s. However, the occupants of the building have different stories to tell. Stories of a more ‘spookish’ nature. Fittingly for Halloween it is appropriate to share these.
After publishing earlier on this topic on the Edinburgh Fire Research Blog in 2012, I was alerted to the writings of Kathleen Barlow on the Denver Equitable Building. Kathleen’s article, Spirits and Scandals tells of several ghost stories related to the Denver Equitable Building. She writes of two crimes of passion conducted by two jealous husbands on two separate occasions at the building site. Also recounted are tales how an individual died in the building shortly after constructed, and how a janitor, Andrew Anderson, fell to his death washing windows from the ninth floor. These aren’t the ghost stories though they may explain them. Today, she reports the occupiers of the building occasionally report the smell of aftershave in areas of the building. A person could be sitting there move a few metres and the smell would disappear. Some claim the smell to be from the deceased janitor of the building. Others report that when they speak ill things of the building strange events happen to them and their possessions. And the most spooky of all, stories of figures that resemble people that vanish. Usually when asked who they were and what they were doing in the building, they disappear. Yet one figure did not; a women who entered the building early one morning saw a man in very classical overall garments cleaning the halls. The man looked at her and spoke “you shouldn’t be here so early. Don’t you know the building is haunted.” When she contacted the company responsible for cleaning, they informed her that they had no one working there that morning, and certainly no one fitting the description she provided….
These old buildings have history to tell. Some scientific, some not so. But still interestingly enough for a scare on Halloween.
Sports fans are eagerly anticipating the start of the new National Hockey League (NHL) season beginning next month.
I have always loved ice hockey especially its history. Growing up I was fascinated by the statistics, and the growth of ice hockey as a sport. I remember reading about the Westmount Arena, the home of the NHL’s Montreal Canadiens and Montreal Wanderers. I read vague passages of how a fire destroyed the arena and how the aftermath of the fire nearly collapsed the NHL in its first season. Life moved on for me, science began to preoccupy my passion, and following ice hockey slowly became less of a pressing concern for me. However, when I began to study fire sciences around 2008, I realized there was a synthesis there. I started to realize why (or at least hypothesize why) the Westmount Arena was destroyed by fire. Naturally I wanted to write about it; history, sports and fire science- bringing all three subjects together – Awesome. So I devoured newspaper articles, old images, old books. As I did this though, I started to learn important skills on how to find information. How to do proper analysis of primary sources, and how to dig deeper into literature. One result was this paper I wrote here (shared online courtesy of the Society of International Hockey Research) published in 2011.
That paper is not directly meant for a scientific audience, but it has a few things of interest for the fire safety scientist. The paper is mainly written for the sports lover – with little subtle touches of fire science sprinkled in. Today I find the paper a great lesson of synthesizing different subjects together for study and contributing something intended for a broad audience. If your curious about the origins of the National Hockey League, the fire of Westmount Arena, then this paper is a great piece to read to get some background on early professional sports.
Though if i were to write it again with what i know now ………
An excerpt is shown above which provides some old photos of the fire’s aftermath to Westmount arena.